Glossary

Acid leaching
Leaching with (solutions of) acids as reagents.
ADR
American Depositary Receipt; a security representing partial ownership in deposited securities of a foreign company certified by receipts issued by a US depositary bank
Agglomeration
A method for forming relatively large porous blocks (sinters) by sintering (roasting) fine or powder ore, where solid particles are joined together by solidifying fusible compounds.
Anode
Crude metal (nickel or copper) obtained from anode smelting and fed for electrolytic refining (electrolysis) whereby it is dissolved.
ARM
African Rainbow Minerals
AUD
Australian dollar
Blasting
Detonation of explosives in natural rock formations with the purpose of controlled destruction and removal or changing their structure and form.
BWP
Botswana pula
Cake
Solid residue from slurry filtering during leaching of ores, concentrates or metallurgical intermediates, and purification of process solutions.
Cathode
Pure metal (nickel or copper) obtained as a result of electrolytic refining of anodes.
Charge
A mixture of materials in certain proportions needed to achieve the required chemical composition of the end product. The charge may include ores, ore concentrates, sinter cake, return slag, dust from dust collectors, and metals (mostly in the form of scrap).
CHOP
Private Security Company
Company
Public Joint Stock Company "Mining and Metallurgical Company "Norilsk Nickel"
Concentrate
A product of ore concentration with a high grade of the extracted mineral, which gives its name to the concentrate (copper, nickel, etc.).
Concentration
Artificial improvement of metallurgical feedstock mineral grades by removing a major portion of waste rock not containing any valuable minerals.
Concentrator area
A part of a PGM concentrator.
Converter matte
A metallurgical intermediate produced as a result of matte conversion. Depending on the chemical composition, converter matte may be copper, nickel and copper-nickel matte.
Converting
An autogenous pyrometallurgical process where ferrous and other detrimental impurities are oxidised and removed as slag to produce blister copper (in copper concentrate smelting) or converter matte (in copper-nickel concentrate smelting).
CRU
Commodities Research Unit; a specialist research and consultancy company for the metal market
Cupriferous ores
Ores containing 20% to 70% sulphides, with the following metal grades: 0.2–2.5% for nickel, 1.0–15.0% for copper, and 5–50 g/t for platinum group metals.
CUSIP
Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures; an identification code assigned to securities issued in the US and Canada
Deposit stripping
Creation of permanent mine workings providing access to the entire mineral deposit or its part from the surface and enabling preparatory mining works.
Dilution
Contamination of a mineral resource with non-commercial grades and host rock, which leads to a lower content of a useful component in the mined material as compared to its original content. Dilution results in higher mining and transportation costs, as well as poorer operational and economic performance of concentrators. The level of dilution depends on the mode of occurrence, equipment used, development and mining methods. For ore deposits with favourable geological conditions, dilution may be up to 10%, and go up to 35–40% for complex rock bedding.
Disseminated ores
Ores containing 5% to 30% sulphides, with the following metal grades: 0.2–1.5% for nickel, 0.3–2% for copper, and 2–10 g/t for platinum group metals.
DMS
Dense Media Separation; a heavy-medium separation technology
Drying
Removal of moisture from concentrates performed in designated drying furnaces (to a moisture level below 9%).
Electrolysis
Electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes in electrolyte-immersed electrodes driven by electric current from external sources.
ESPC
Enriched Stored Pyrrhotite Concentrate
FCSM
Federal Commission for the Securities Market
FFMS
Federal Financial Markets Service
Filtration
The process of reducing the moisture level of the concentrate by forcing liquid or gas through a porous medium.
Flash smelter
An autogenous smelter for processing dry concentrates, where the smelted substance is finely ground feedstock mixed with a gaseous oxidiser (air, oxygen), which holds molten metal particles suspended. The heat from oxidation reactions is actively used in the process.
Flotation
A concentration process where specific mineral particles suspended within the slurry attach to air bubbles. Poorly wettable mineral particles attach to the air bubbles and rise through the suspension to the top of the slurry, producing foam, while well wettable mineral particles do not attach to the bubbles and remain in the slurry. This is how the minerals are separated.
Gas condensate
A mixture of hydrocarbon liquids separated from raw natural gas.
GFMS
Gold Fields Mineral Services; a specialist research and consultancy company for the metal market
Group
Public Joint Stock Company "Mining and Metallurgical Company "Norilsk Nickel” and its subsidiaries
Heap leaching
Leaching where ore stacked (heaped) over a specially prepared natural or artificial leach pad with an impermeable foundation is irrigated with reagent solution.
IFRS
International Financial Reporting Standards
IISI
International Iron and Steel Institute
Indicated mineral resources
Resources representing that part of mineral resources for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity, but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed.
Inferred mineral resources
That part of mineral resources for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes, which is limited or of uncertain quality and reliability.
IOBU
International Order Book Unlisted; a London Stock Exchange platform for trading the most liquid international securities
ISIN
International Securities Identification Number;
12-character alpha-numerical code that uniquely identifies a specific security and is allocated by national numbering agencies
ISO
International Organisation for Standardisation
JORC Code
An Australasian code developed by the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, the Australian Institute of Geoscientists and the Mineral Council of Australia for reporting ore and metal reserves
Kola MMC
Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company
Krastsvetmet
The Gulidov Krasnoyarsk Non-Ferrous Metals Plant
Leaching
Selective dissolution of one or several components of the processed solid material in organic solvents or water solutions of inorganic substances.
Level
All workings located at a specific level and designated for mining.
LionOre
LionOre Mining International Ltd
Matte
Intermediate product in the form of an alloy of iron sulphides and non-ferrous metals with a varying chemical composition. Matte is the main product in which precious and auxiliary metals accumulate.
Measured mineral resources
That part of mineral resources for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence. It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and/or grade continuity.
Metal grade
The ratio between the weight of metal in the dry material and the total dry weight of the material expressed as a percentage or grammes per tonne (g/t).
Metal recovery
The ratio between the quantity of a component extracted from the source material and its quantity in the source material (as a percentage or a fraction).
MICEX
Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange
Micon
Micon International Limited
Mine
A mining location for the extraction of ores.
Mine workings
The general term for parts of a mine or a quarry that have been excavated during mining.
Mineral deposit
A mass of naturally occurring mineral material (near to the surface or deeper underground) which is economically valuable in terms of quantity, quality and conditions.
Mineral resources
A concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest in or on the earth's crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction.
MMC
Mining and Metallurgical Company
MSA
Matte Separation Area
NOF
Norilsk Concentrator
Nornickel
Open Joint Stock Company "Mining and Metallurgical Company "Norilsk Nickel” and its subsidiaries
OGK
Wholesale Generating Company
Open-pit mining
The process of extracting minerals from the surface of the earth by their removal from an open pit.
Ore
Natural minerals containing metals or their compounds in economically valuable amounts and forms.
Ore body
Natural occurrence of ores associated with certain structural and geological element or a combination of such elements.
Ore reserves
The economically mineable part of measured or indicated mineral resources, including possible dilution and losses during mining operations.
OTC MARKET
Over-The-Counter Market (US)
Oxide
A chemical compounds in which oxygen is combined with another element.
PGM
Platinum group metals taken as a whole or in any combination of platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium and iridium
Probable ore reserves
The economically mineable part of indicated and, in some circumstances, measured mineral resources, including possible dilution and losses during mining operations.
Proved ore reserves
The economically mineable part of measured mineral resources, including possible dilution and losses during mining operations.
Pyrometallurgical processes
Metallurgical processes performed at high temperatures, including roasting, smelting and converting distinguished depending on their technological characteristics.
RAS
Russian Accounting Standards
Refining
The process of extracting high-purity precious metals through their separation and removal of impurities.
Rich ores, high-grade ores
Ores with high sulphide content (over 70%) and the following metal grades: 2–5% for nickel, 2–25% for copper, and 5–100 g/t for platinum group metals.
Roasting
The process of removing volatile components from and changing the chemical composition of materials (ores, concentrates, etc.) at elevated temperatures enabling various gas-solid reactions, but insufficient to cause melting of the material's solid compounds.
RTS
Russian Trading System
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission (US)
SEDOL
Stock Exchange Daily Official List;
seven-character alpha-numerical identification code assigned to all securities that trade in the UK’s organised securities markets
Sinter, sinter cake
Sintered ore produced as a result of the agglomeration process.
Skip
An automatically unloading box, which is part of the skip hoist system. It travels along the guide rails to haul minerals or rock along vertical and reclining shafts, or lift ore charge.
Slag
Melted or solid substance with a varying composition that covers the surface of a liquid product during metallurgical processes (resulting from charge melting, melted intermediate processing and metal refining) and includes waste rock, fluxes, fuel ash, metal sulphides and oxides, and products of interaction between the processed materials and lining of melting units.
Slime
Powder product containing precious metals precipitating in the course of copper and other metals electrolysis.
Slurry
A mixture of finely ground mineral with water or a water solution.
Smelting
A pyrometallurgical process performed at high temperatures enabling the complete melting down of the processed material.
SPC
Stored Pyrrhotite Concentrate
Suction system
A mechanical device for removing (extracting) pollutant emissions and gases from workplaces and getting air or gas samples to analyse their composition and dust content.
Sulphides
Compounds of metals and sulphur.
Tailing dump
A complex of hydraulic structures used to receive and store mineral waste / waste tailings.
TGK
Territorial Generating Company
Thickening
Separation of liquid (water) and solid particles in dispersion systems (slurry, suspension, colloid) based on natural gravity settling of solid particles in settlers and thickeners, or centrifugal settling of solid particles in hydrocyclones.
TOF
Talnakh Concentrator
Underground (subsurface) mining
A set of stripping, preparatory and stoping operations.
Vanyukov's furnace
An autogenous smelter for processing concentrates, where smelting is performed in a bath of slag and matte, with intensive injection of air-oxygen mixture. The heat from oxidation reactions is actively used in the process.
Waste heat boiler
A steam boiler without a furnace that uses heat of flue gases from metallurgical processes, industrial furnaces, power plants or combustion engines.
Waste tailings
Waste materials left over after concentration and containing mostly waste rock with a minor amount of valuable minerals.
WBMS
World Bureau of Metal Statistics
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